Entre nous – Star http://starpress.info Journal d'information en ligne Fri, 21 Jul 2017 09:15:13 +0000 fr-FR hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.6.6 Electronic Surveillance : A choice between privacy and national security http://starpress.info/electronic-surveillance-a-choice-between-privacy-and-national-security-1517/ Fri, 19 May 2017 06:28:46 +0000 http://starpress.info/?p=1517 Electronic Surveillance or Mass surveillance is the practice of spying on an entire, or significant part of a population. It can involve anything from CCTV monitoring and email interceptions, to wire-tapping and computer hacking. Often, electronic surveillance is carried out by the state but it can also be carried out by corporations, either on behalf of government or on their own initiative.

The Investigatory Powers Act

In December 2016, the United Kingdom enacted a law, the Investigatory Powers Act, giving it unprecedented authority to gather private citizens’ data. This Act requires communications service providers to store up to 12 months of user’s browsing history and phone data for potential review by law enforcement. The law also empowers intelligence officials to monitor residents’ communications and even hack their correspondences if the Secretary of State grants a warrant to do so. This is the first surveillance setup of its kind in the democratic world. No other European country, Canada, Australia or the United States has legal obligation to retain digital communication records for that amount of time. Under this legal structure the U.K. government can now make demands from private companies that are not different from those made by repressive governments like China or Russia. This wide-reaching and excessively intrusive law which legalizes electronic surveillance undermines digital privacy and privileges national security. It is very likely that the United States could look to the United Kingdom’s new law as a model for expanding electronic surveillance.

Mass surveillance powers condemned

However, in a judgment handed down in Luxembourg in December 2016, the European Court of Justice severely condemned the British government’s mass surveillance powers and declared that the “general and indiscriminate retention” of data about people’s communications and locations was inconsistent with privacy rights. The court stated that the “highly invasive” bulk storage of private data “exceeds the limits of what is strictly necessary and cannot be considered to be justified, within a democratic society.” But as the UK has voted to leave the EU, it may not be worried by the court ruling. The British government will have the latitude to enable police and spy agencies to access vast amounts of data on people’s internet browsing, instant messages, emails, phone calls, and social media conversations.

\Electronic surveillance is the monitoring and collection of digital footprints left behind by people. This can be done in a large variety of ways, from following someone on CCTV to reading text messages, sifting through internet browsing history and social media or even secretly activating webcams or microphones to spy on people.  Government in several countries is collecting information on millions of citizens. Phone, Internet, and email habits, credit card and bank records—virtually all information that is communicated electronically is subject to the watchful eye of the state. For the effectiveness of governmental apparatus, knowledge is power. Many governments, therefore, justify electronic surveillance for the purpose of collecting as much information as possible to keep their citizens safe from harm or to keep order in the country or to prevent «terrorism». However, many of the data collected about people’s personal lives can be used nefariously against the people. During the Arab Spring, for example, governments used electronic surveillance to keep track of protesters and other dissidents. Many people were arrested as a direct result of their digital movements, which made them easy targets for law enforcement and intelligence agencies.

Emails are easily intercepted

Email is extraordinarily vulnerable. Messages “travel” through a number of different channels before their arrival to the intended recipient. At any one of these channels, an email can be intercepted and its content viewed. If your email is not encrypted, the content of your messages is at its most vulnerable in terms of being viewed by a third party. Email messages can be intercepted and then reformatted to be sent to the intended recipient or someone else altogether.

This kind of interception is called a “man-in-the middle-attack.” Email addresses can be disguised as another person or organization in a process called masquerading. A more invasive and insidious form of disguise is spoofing, in which email addresses are actually forged. An unknown third party, such as private security firms or government agencies or everyday Internet users can disguise themselves with the help of websites and extract information from intended recipients. Likewise, Triggerfish is a technology that mimics a cell phone tower, picking up on a cell phone’s signal and essentially, through a man-in-the-middle attack, intercepts calls and reveals numbers dialed and received, locations, and other information that can pinpoint the identity of the cell phone user.

Track what people do

Intelligence agencies and other governmental departments are responsible for most widespread electronic surveillance. They have the resources and capabilities to track large groups of people, either within their own country or outside of it. Besides governments, there are also a lot of companies who use the Internet to track what people do. This collection of large swaths of data will then be used in different ways to generate revenue for the company, for example, by providing other companies with the browsing habits of people so that advertisements can be targeted more accurately towards these tracked people. Many companies also use electronic surveillance as a way of keeping track of what their employees do during working hours.

Europe’s ability to continue to take the moral high ground of protecting privacy is rapidly declining. In recent months, and in the wake of a series of terrorist attacks across Europe, Germany,
France and the United Kingdom have passed laws granting their surveillance agencies virtually unfettered power to conduct bulk interception of communications across Europe and beyond. Across Europe, from Poland to Austria, from Italy to Sweden, parliaments have been adopting expansive domestic and foreign surveillance legislation in recent months and years. This wave of legislation, pushed by populist agendas and public outrage in the wake of recent terrorist attacks on European soil, is a flagrant disregard to decades of jurisprudence by the European Court of Human Rights and more recent jurisprudence by Court of Justice of EU, and it puts in danger privacy protections across the European continent.

Electronic surveillance is in expansion across the world, although its penetration and coverage vary from country to country. If this trend continues, the privacy enjoyed by humankinds up till now will become a by-gone matter for future generations.

 

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Over-education and underemployment http://starpress.info/over-education-and-underemployment-160/ Thu, 30 Jun 2016 08:57:57 +0000 http://starpress.info/?p=160 The present generation is facing an unprecedented problem of mismatch between over-education and underemployment where even an advanced degree cannot protect some young graduates from tumbling down the economic ladder.

By being overqualified they become more vulnerable of being turned down. It is indeed an aberration that going to good educational institutions with lot of sacrifices in terms of time and money ends up in being underemployed, if not unemployed. Graduate unemployment and underemployment are real issues facing today’s youth, both in developed and developing countries.

No opportunities for undergraduates

« Younger people may find they never get a good start to their career. Forced to take jobs that are beneath their skills… »

Underemployment is a situation when workers’ jobs do not use all their skills, education, or availability to work. There are two types of underemployment: visible and invisible. Visible underemployment includes employees who are working fewer hours than is typical in their field. They are willing and able to work more hours, but cannot get full-time employment. They often work two part-time jobs, just to make ends meet. Invisible underemployment includes workers in full-time jobs that do not use all their skills. Underemployment also includes those who work full-time but live below the poverty level.

The overeducated youth population presents a trickle-down underemployment predicament. Postgraduates are securing undergraduate jobs beneath their qualifications; meanwhile, undergraduates are losing out on these jobs to their overqualified counterparts and finding themselves in positions that only require a high school education.

Hordes of undergraduates are completing university courses and going out into the big wide world of work, only to find there are no opportunities for them to do what they are qualified to do. As a result, many are returning to university to complete even higher degrees in order to obtain jobs that only require an undergraduate degree. Younger people may find they never get a good start to their career. Forced to take jobs that are beneath their skills, they do not get on the right career track. They miss the mentoring needed to get increased responsibility that would update their skills. By the time they overcome the missing gaps, they find themselves competing with a new batch of graduates for entry-level positions in their fields.

The conventional wisdom that more education bears fruit in the labor market is now being questioned. For people with masters and even doctoral degrees, long-term unemployment is especially insidious. Foreclosure and evaporated savings push them out of the middle class, and some just keep falling. Most of these people in this long-term unemployed category are experiencing downward financial mobility.

The financial consequences of long-term unemployment are hugely significant and very painful. Being underemployed often equates to being underpaid. So after studying hard at university for years, many young people, particularly in America – currently drifting between casual and part time service-industry jobs that offer little stability or security – are living on less, and will soon have to face rising student loan debts. The effects of underemployment are similar to those of unemployment.  Both of them cause higher poverty levels. Without adequate income, families don’t buy as much. That reduces consumer demand, slowing business growth. As a result, the nation’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is lower, as is job growth. It’s a vicious, downward spiral.

Political connections

Reclaiming professional and financial stability is a long journey for the underemployed. If underemployment continues, workers lose the ability to update their skills with on-the-job training. They may not be able to return to their former field without training. Some retrain for different fields, while other downscale their lifestyle and accept long-term underemployment.

In emerging economies, rising joblessness among new university graduates is creating an army of educated unemployed that some fear could destabilize these huge economies. Both India and China have experienced a higher education revolution in the past decade, with the number of young people completing university degrees rising from a few hundred thousand a year to many millions. Dramatic expansion of university education should have provided new graduates with opportunities unheard of in their parents’ generation. Instead, with an alarming rise in the number of unemployed and under-employed graduates, a large group of educated young people are becoming alienated, unable to become part of the growing middle class. This has created a generation of bored young graduates, marking time and detached from the world. As if, waiting has become a profession for these young people. There is a widespread view among the “time pass” youth that jobs only go to those with political connections, rather than qualifications or skills. There are some who see the unfulfilled aspirations as a source for fueling violence and destructive politics. In extreme cases, youth underemployment can lead to civil unrest and violence. For example, one fourth of all young people were unemployed in the Middle East, leading to the Arab Spring.

 


 

Career-guidance is essential

While it is the responsibility of the educational authorities to provide guidance and take remedial measure, the Faculty members are the most important source of information about graduate programme, and many of them should be better informed about the realities of their profession today. However, many academics are motivated to reproduce themselves professionally because they see students as their captive clientele. With little or no experience of realities outside the campus, they regard a graduate-school placement as an accomplishment or end-goal. It is essential that students seek independent counselling from career services about their options apart from graduate school. Undergraduates should have access to accurate, realistic, and up-to-date advice that is focused on their interests rather than the needs of universities wedded to romantic notions about the life on the campus.

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